Guide to Private Renting

Why rent privately?

With the expanding private rented sector more and more properties available in a wider range of areas.

Set up a tenancy

Tenancy agreements

A tenancy agreement is a contract between you and a landlord. It lets you live in a property as long as you pay rent and follow the rules. It also sets out the legal terms and conditions of your tenancy. It can be written or verbal. Assured Shorthold Tenancy (AST) is the most common form of tenancy agreement.  Assured Shorthold Tenancies and other types of tenancy agreements cab be found at GOV.UK private renting tenancy agreements.

Amount of rent you should pay

The amount of rent charged will depend on the type, location and condition of the property. You should agree the rent with the landlord before signing the tenancy agreement. To see if the amount is reasonable:

  • check other similar properties in the area
  • find out if the amount charged includes tax, water rates, gas and electric

Before agreeing to take on a property, make sure you it suits your needs and you can afford the rent and bills.

 How to find accommodation in the private rented sector (PDF, 119.1 KB)


If you've an Assured Shorthold Tenancy (GOV.UK), your landlord must protect your deposit in a Tenancy Deposit Protection Scheme (GOV.UK).

The scheme helps make sure you get your deposit back if:

  • you meet the terms of the tenancy agreement
  • the property is undamaged
  • rent and bills are paid

Your landlord's responsibilities


Your landlord is responsible for repairs to:

  • hot water and heating
  • gas appliances provided
  • chimneys and ventilation
  • electrical wiring
  • exterior and structure of the home
  • sinks, baths and toilets and their pipework
  • any damage they cause by attempting repairs

The Ministry of Justice (MoJ) has launched a tool that helps tenants take on landlords or letting agents who are failing to repair or maintain properties to the required standard

Check how to get repairs done in your rented home - GOV.UK (

Gas safety

Your landlord must:

  • ensure that any gas equipment they supply is safely installed and maintained by a Gas Safe registered engineer. You can check if an engineer is registered by looking at their ID card
  • arrange for a gas safety check to be carried out at least once a year, by a Gas Safe registered engineer
  • provide a copy of the gas safety check record before you move in or within 28 days of the check

Electrical safety

Your landlord must make sure:

  • the electrical system is safe, including sockets and light fittings
  • any appliances they supply are safe

Fire safety

Your landlord must:

  • follow safety regulations
  • make sure all the furniture and fittings they provide are fire safe
  • provide at least one smoke alarm on each floor of the property used for living accommodation
  • provide a carbon monoxide alarm in rooms where solid fuel is burnt, such as in a fireplace or woodburner
  • carry out a written risk assessment and take any action necessary, if your property is a licensed House in Multiple Occupation (HMO)

Energy performance

If you rent a whole house or flat, your landlord has to provide an Energy Performance Certificate before you move in. This shows you how energy efficient the property is. Properties are rated from A to G, A being the most efficient. Finding a more efficient property could help you save money on your fuel bills.

Licences for rented properties

Some rented houses and flats need a licence before they can be let out by the landlord. This is to make sure they meet the required standards of health, safety and welfare for the people living there.  

Licensed Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMO)

A licensable HMO has:

  • five or more people living in the property, from two or more families or households
  • shared facilities, such as toilets, bathrooms or kitchens
  • All storeys, including cellars, basements, attics, loft conversions and mezzanine floors

Report an unlicensed property

If you think the property you live in should have a property licence, but doesn’t, let us know.

Report an unlicensed property

If we successfully prosecute your landlord for not having the right property licence, you may be able to reclaim some of your rent. This would be through one of the Government's Housing Tribunals. Guidance is available on GOV.UK – housing tribunals.

Your rights and responsibilities

As a tenant you've the right to:

  • know the terms of your tenancy agreement
  • know your landlord’s name and address
  • live in a property that’s safe and in a good state of repair
  • 24 hours’ notice if the landlord wants to visit your property
  • notice if your landlord wants you to leave the property altogether

As a tenant you've certain responsibilities:

  • pay your rent and bill(s)
  • report repairs to your landlord as soon as possible
  • don’t deliberately cause damage to the property
  • don’t make any changes to the property without your landlord’s permission
  • take care of the garden, if the tenancy agreement says it’s your responsibility
  • make sure your guests don’t break your tenancy agreement
  • don’t make a lot of noise

How to Rent guide

Rent increases

Your tenancy agreement should include how and when the rent will be reviewed. If it does your landlord must follow it.

If it does not and you have a fixed term tenancy, your rent can’t be increased during the tenancy unless it's agreed by both you and the landlord. At the end of the tenancy the landlord can propose a different rent and you can then decide whether to renew or not.

If you've a periodic or rolling tenancy, on a week to week or month to month basis, your landlord cannot normally increase your rent more than once a year without your agreement.

Resident Landlords

If your landlord lives in the property with you, you do not have the same rights when it comes to rent increases.

To increase your rent, your landlord must give you notice in writing. The notice period must be at least as long as how often you pay rent and no less than 28 days. For example, if you pay rent on a monthly basis, the notice must be at least a month.

There is no restriction on how often a resident landlord can increase your rent. However, if you’re claiming housing benefit whilst living there you won’t be able to apply for an increase in benefit within a year of the last increase or since the rent was agreed at the start of the tenancy.
More information about rent increases can be found on GOV.UK rent increases.

Rent arrears

Your landlord can evict you if you fall behind with your rent. Don’t ignore the problem. Make sure to read any letters you receive from your landlord, they may contain information about the action they plan to take.

Our Money Advice page may be able to help you and you could use our benefits calculator to see if you’re entitled to housing benefit or a reduction in council tax.

You can also get advice from: